DNA purification is a vital process in many molecular tests like PCR and qPCR. It removes contaminants such as salts, proteins and other impurities that can disrupt downstream processes. It also ensures that the desired DNA is clean and in good condition so that it can be used for further analysis. The quality of DNA is determined through spectrophotometry (the ratio of A260 to A280) and gel electrophoresis and other methods.

The initial step in a DNA purification procedure is cell lysis, where the cellular structure is disrupted by reagents or detergents like SDS to why not look here release DNA. To further purify DNA, reagents with protein denature such as sodium dodecyl sulfate or Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) are added to break down the proteins. They then are removed from the nucleic acids solution through centrifugation and washing steps. If RNA is detected in the sample then it can be further denatured by adding ribonuclease. The nucleic acids then are concentrated in ice-cold alcohol to separate them from other contaminants.

Ethanol can be utilized as solvents to eliminate salts and other contaminants from nucleic acids. Using a standardized ethanol concentration allows researchers to compare results across tests, making it a suitable choice for high-throughput workflows. Other solvents, like chloroform or phenol can be used but they are more corrosive and require additional steps to avoid cross-contamination. The purification of DNA can be made simpler by using ethanol with a low ionic strength. It has been proven to be effective as traditional organic solvents at making DNA purer. This is especially true when combined with spin column extract kits.